3. Tuning for beginners:
For information about tuning in general, see: Tuning (Music) Wikipedia.
We start always with the tuning of the A / La-string.
Then we will tune the D / Re, G / Sol and finally for violin the E / Mi-string, for viola the C / Do-string.
We tune in Europe mostly on A / La: 442 Hertz, although the standard actually is 440 Hertz ?.
We do this because higher tuning your violin gives you more volume and a bright sound.
This sometimes leads to confusion, as in the United Kingdom and in the United States they still tune
on 440 Hz ..
You can tune all strings on a piano ,, on another violin, on a tuning fork, on a tuning whistle or with a tuning device. Nowadays you can also use reference tones to tune on, for example, on a CD or on this website.
Tuning for intermediate:
Advanced players first tune the A / La-string, for example, on a piano, violin, tuning fork, tuning device or the oboe in an orchestra.
After that they compare the strings with each other by playing two strings at the same time tuning with your ears. A resonance (= certain resonance in the sound) means not in tune.
This goes as follows:
They play A+D / La+Re together, and D+G / Re+Sol together and later A+E / La+Mi for violin, G+C / Sol+Do for viola. This way of tuning needs to be trained with your ears and you can practice this best together with your teacher.